NYU Startup School: Digital Marketing Essentials


[clapping] Thank you, so my name is Terry Rice and today we will be talking about digital marketing essentials. And my goal is to give you a good foundational understanding of digital marketing best practices and then for you to use that to grow in areas that you’re particularly interested in. Before we get started a quick question here. What is the most Instagramed food around the world what you think? -Hamburgers?
-Ice cream? I hear hamburgers, I heard ice cream, what else? -Salad? Salad? Pretty healthy, what else? -Pizza? Pizza, there you go. Yeah. That’s just the beginning of what we’re gonna learn about today. So, yes, pizza is the most Instagramed food around the world. And in fact Instagram gets the most engagement out of any social media channel, right? But but just because it’s engagement does not mean you’re necessarily getting conversions. That’s what I want to talk about today. I’m looking at data and saying okay, what is my desired outcome from that and am I achieving it efficiently? So again, my name’s Terry Rice and I’m a digital marketing instructor here at NYU. Last semester, I taught a search marketing class which covered paid search as well as SEO and this semester I’m teaching a Facebook and Instagram marketing class. So, let me know if you have more questions about that. I’m also a trainer and consultant at my own company. It’s called Brooklyn Digital Marketing. I called it that because I did not want to spend a lot of time thinking of a cool name. I live in Brooklyn, I do digital marketing, that’s it, right. Before that I was a client solutions manager at Facebook and in that role I partnered with enterprise and emerging level companies to help them monetize Facebook and Instagram. I had a similar role before that when I was at Adobe. I was a search engine marketing consultant. So again, helping companies better leverage paid search marketing to achieve their business goals. So, that’s me, but let’s talk about Kanye. This is one of my favorite quotes from Kanye and I’ll read it to you. It says “I hate when I’m on a flight and I wake up with a water bottle next to me like oh great now I gotta be responsible for this water bottle.” Such as this one, right? But there’s a really big reason why you get so much water when you’re on a flight. Humidity. So, in your normal serenity, the humidity is around 40 to 70%, but when you’re flying it’s actually between 10 and 20%. So, it’s actually recommended that you drink about 8 ounces of water for every hour that you’re in flight. Now for me when I fly it’s often for business. And if I’m dehydrated, let’s talk about some of those negative effects you can have. You can be irritable, confused, sleepy, or get a headache. So, if I’m traveling for business and I’m doing a lot of talking that’s not a good combination. Alright, so for me, it’s really important to be hydrated. But for all of you it is as well. And that leads me to my next type of a conversation the hydrate spark. Raise your hand if you’ve heard of this before. So, the hydrate spark is a smart water bottle that tracks your water intake and glows to tell you when it’s time to drink. It also syncs with several apps such as FitBit, allright? So, it’s a way for you to monitor your water intake throughout the day and make sure that you’re hitting the optimal level. And this is the use case we’re going to use today to talk about digital marketing. We’re trying to sell these things. One other thing I’ll tell you what the hydrate spark is it cost about 60 bucks. So, there is gonna be some convincing going along. I see, I see the reactions I get it, right. We’re going to have to convince people why they need to buy a 60 dollar water bottle. So with that, what is digital marketing? Alright, this term gets thrown around a lot. It can include social media, can include paid search, it can include SEO, search engine optimization. But if you were to just google it and get a definition, this is what it would say. It’s using digital technologies for the targeted measurable and interactive marketing of products or services. So, that’s when we start thinking about other things such as apps and even chat bots, right, some more non-traditional forms of digital marketing. And I have a few keywords highlighted here because for me that’s the most important aspect, super targeted. If we wanted to we could target every dentist in Park Slope who likes the Spice Girls and ask why? you know, what’s your deal? That’s how targeted we can get. It’s also measurable which is great because you can’t optimize what you can’t measure. So, I’m really bullish on making sure we have the proper tracking on our websites and our apps, so that we could measure the outcomes of our campaigns. And then lastly it’s interactive. We see this a lot with social media. All right, so, if you had a billboard somewhere on Broadway right now that said Famous Jill’s is the best pizza in Brooklyn. Okay, it’s a billboard. It’s great, but it’s very passive. However, if you had a social media post that says the same thing, you might get some comments from the people that see it saying yeah, the pizza’s great but the delivery times horrible, or why did your prices go up? or do you deliver to Bensonhurst? All right, so, now you actually having a conversation with people that see your content and from there you can make a better product. But with that it’s extremely important to know your audience. So, that’s why I like this phrase “know your audience or you’ll have no audience.” One of the first questions I ask any of my clients or prospects is who is your target audience? Because before I start talking and thinking about the outcomes I need to know who this product is for. Because I’m often wrong, my assumptions can be wrong. So, you need to define your audience because that’s how you have more genuine interactions with them. So, before we start pushing any buttons or making any cool snapchat ads, we need to know who it’s for. So there’s this patience that goes into it. This is marketing one-on-one, it’s not digital marketing. But one challenge that I see quite often is there are some people that are really good at the technical aspects of digital marketing. All right, they can code, they can put some pixels on somewhere or they understand this algorithm that we’re talking about. But where they often lack is marketing one-on-one where you’re having empathy for who you’re targeting and saying what message should I deliver to them based on what stage of awareness they are. Even more important with water, right, because we all need water obviously, right. But we have options for how we want to drink that water. Some of you were going to be happy with just a cup, right? I’m good to go. Others might want to have a water bottle like a camel pack. We need to find the people they’re going to want to use this Hydrate Spark. That’s a very defined audience because again, it’s 60 bucks, right? It’s not just something you would just buy on a whim. So with that, who’s this person? What’s he known for? -Dave. Dave? Dave from Wendy’s, yeah. This is Dave Thomas the founder of Wendy’s. I understand I’m dating myself to an extent right now. But yes, this is Dave Thomas the founder of Wendy’s and when I was a kid these are the ads you would see for Wendy’s. This friendly looking guy waiting to give you a burger even though he never looks like that in person. And they actually had some salads as well too, right? That’s Dave Thomas. He was the face of Wendy’s when I was a kid growing up in the 80s and the 90s. But for any of you that have seen an ad or a post especially on social media from Wendy’s lately knows that this is not the face that they’re putting out there, right? Yeah, things have changed with Wendy’s. There’s a darker side of Wendy’s that we never knew about before and it manifests itself on social media. Here’s an example. This person Cooper Franklin said “Wendy’s needs to get rid of those square burgers. It seems a little too artificial.” And at first I was like, oh, good point. Wendy’s replied “unlike the supernatural circle shape that hamburgers come in when you pick them off the vine.” Good point, Wendy’s, right? So they’re pretty snarky in their social media, especially on Twitter. And they actually go after other fast-food restaurants sometimes, too. Which I just think is hilarious. Here’s an example. So, McDonald’s. They had this tweet that was supposed to go out on Black Friday, and it says “need copy and link.” Meaning, they accidentally posted the template not the tweet, all right? With that Wendy’s jumped on and said “when the tweeter is broken as the ice cream machine.” Which is hilarious, right? So they have this timely and relevant content, but it’s a lot, again, it’s a lot snarkier then Dave Thomas ever would have been. Alright, some of you might have noticed that they also just dropped it dropped a mixtape. Wendy’s now has a mixtape called “Why we beefing.” -Ha ha. Exactly, right? So, they had this edgier personality and it’s because, you know, times have changed and so has their target audience. So, back in the 80s, the 90s, you know, they were targeting families to come to Wendy’s, sit down, and have a good meal. I’m doing fake air quotes when I say good meal. But now they’re targeting younger people, right, so college students, all right? When I was in college, it was good like hangover food, right? You got to soak up all that alcohol, right? How do they know that though? They did their research. Which is what more brands need to do because often we assume who our target audience is and what they’re interested in without doing any kind of research whatsoever. So with that, one of my favorite tools to do that is audience insights from Facebook and with this tool you can take a known audience, such as people that have an interest in Wendy’s, or Nike, or NYU and look at various attributes that’s pulled directly from your Facebook profile, the websites you visit, as well as third-party data providers such as Oracle or Nielsen. So that’s how they know that you binge watch Friends, right? They’re sharing with Nielsen data. So right now, let’s take a look at Wendy’s audience. Right now we can see that they skew a little bit younger. So, there’s two lines here if we go to the far left. There’s a light gray line and there’s a darker blue line. The dark blue line represents Wendy’s audience and we see that they’re more likely between the 18 and 24 year old range than anything else on Facebook. So, they are younger. Same thing with 25 to 34. All right, so not necessarily that family of four that we’re targeting. We can go more deep with this though. Check this out. We can see the relationship status. Why? Because that’s what you put on your Facebook profile, right? This is first party data, right? So we see that they’re more likely to be single or it says +19% that means they’re 19% more likely than anyone else on Facebook to be single. They’re 33% more likely to be in a relationship and actually 38% more likely to be engaged. However, they’re 26 percent less likely to be married. So they can’t quite get over that hump. I guess they just decide to go to Wendy’s instead. I’ve been looking at this data, again, it’s not that that family of four going there. We can get more granular and even look at their income. Right? We see how much money they’re making and if you pay attention, you’ll notice that they’re much less… They’re much more likely to be in these lower bands of income, people that make between 30 and 40, 40 and 50, so on and so forth, and much less likely to make over a couple hundred thousand dollars. Right? So with that we’re getting some clues about who they are as a person, their income things, of that nature. But where you’re really gonna see much more of someone’s personality is the pages that they like. Alright, because you’re literally pushing a button saying I like this kind of content. Here’s Wendy’s. So, what do they like? Under food and beverage it’s gonna be column five. They like Life Savers Gummies. Which is pretty specific, right? For their insurance company, not just Progressive, but Flo from Progressive. Who I would say is pretty hilarious in my opinion. Products or services. We see glow sticks. So, we’re getting an idea who this audience is. And before we move forward, one thing I want to tell you is this can also be your data that you’re looking at from your audience. Anyone that’s on your email list, anyone that goes to your website, anyone that ever made a purchase. And I’m just gonna assume that data’s gonna look a lot different for you than it would for Wendy’s. But this is what’s available to you. And this is how you start making a buyer persona or a customer persona, you might have heard about that before. Because it gives us more input on who we’re targeting as a person. Let’s do a few more. In regards to their media they consume being hyper which just sounds obnoxious. I’m not even sure what that is. They watch Adult Swim. They go to Hot Topic, that’s why they buy clothes. All right, so we’re getting an idea who these people are. They’re younger, they’re like kind of like this ravy crowd, and they also like bacon. Which I think is a good idea. That’s pretty universal. So again, we’re getting a good idea of who these people are based on the pages that they like. So, that’s really important because with digital marketing you need to provide value in exchange for your target audiences attention. Because we’re bombarded with ads all day long. How are you gonna stand out and provide value? That’s honeycomb you see on the board is a great way to do so. Right, if it’s helpful, if it’s entertaining, if it’s unique, if it’s educational. When you’re creating content you want to make sure that you’re checking off a few of these boxes instead of just talking about yourself. And I’m surprised at how many brands just talk about themselves all day long. We have this new product, you know, we just moved to a new office, we just got a new CMO. Nobody cares. You got to provide value first and then talk about some other aspects of your company. So, one healthy thing to do is look at all the content you have out there especially on your social media platforms and do an audit. 80% should be providing value. Then you can check off a few these boxes and say look, I am finding value to my target audience. And sure, 20% should say click here, buy now, or here’s what we’re doing. But I’m often surprised at how backwards that is with companies, they just about themselves all day long instead of providing value to their target audience. It’s super important. That’s how we earn that engagement. And the more engagement you get, the more reach or eyeballs you get on your content. So, we call that impressions as well. Because if these platforms whether it be Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, if they notice we’re engaging with your content by clicking, liking, sharing, commenting they’re saying okay, this is good content, people saw that and were not annoyed by another post from a brand on Facebook. They engaged with it, therefore we will show it to more people. However, if you’re not getting that engagement, they’re saying this stuff is not interesting to people that are seeing it, therefore less people will see it. Even the same thing with paid search marketing where you’re paying for the keywords you’re bidding on to get a click. If your ad is showing up when someone Googles men’s jeans and people do not click on it you actually pay more to advertise. It’s a metric called Quality Score. So, regardless of what platform you’re on the more engagement you get, the more free impressions you get. Or if you are doing paid advertising it’s cheaper. You get rewarded for being relevant and you can’t be relevant if you don’t understand your target audience. It’s super important to nail that down. But with that let’s now talk about campaign planning. And this is also another missing ingredient I often see from digital marketing campaigns, because it’s very easy to start a campaign. There’s very low barrier to launching. Alright, you just set up an account, push a few buttons, within 5 minutes you’re good to go. They’s not the same lead cycle you would have with traditional marketing such as getting an ad in the newspaper where you have to contact someone, write the content, make sure you spell “the” right, things like that. You’re just pushing buttons you’re good to go. Which is why I often see campaign planning go out the window. This is the approach I standardize on when I’m planning campaigns for my clients or prospects, often when I’m teaching as well. It’s called the objective first framework. Meaning, you start with a goal. What do I want to do? Is it leads? Is it awareness? Is it some kind of conversion? You need to start with a goal and then build the rest of your plan around that. So, for example, let’s say my goal is a conversion, meaning someone signing up for my email list. I can say okay, that’s my objective and then I need to define my KPIs. I think it’s the first acronym I used so far, but what a KPI is? What’s that mean? -Key Performance Indicator. There you go. Key performance indicators, these are metrics such as cost per lead or conversion rate. They’ll let you know how well you’re going towards achieving your goal. And we’re going to, I’m gonna dive into Hydrate Spark a bit more to give you some more color around this whole approach. You then design your tactics. That’s the way you’re going to present business value in a way that triggers a customer need or desire. Executing the campaign. That’s when you’re pushing go. When I was at Adobe, I was an account manager. This was always a scariest part because you’re actually spending money in this case. And we need to get some data coming in but you got to press go eventually. And then make sure you’re measuring those outcomes. So, we talked about Google Analytics a lot. I’m sure you heard that before. There’s also the LinkedIn pixel, the Facebook pixel, Twitter pixel, so on and so forth. That’s why you got to be cool with your developer because you’re gonna need him or her to help you measure these campaigns. And the more you can talk like a developer saying look, I need an on-click statement on this button. Can you please set it up? The more quickly you’ll get things accomplished because you’re not just saying I need to measure stuff. And then from there optimizing the results. For me that’s the my favorite part because you’re looking at your data and saying here’s my desired outcome, here are my key performance indicators, now which segments am I achieving that most efficiently in? What can I do better next time? And it’s almost like I’m sure you all have a friend who like they’re just like the king or queen of hindsight whenever you do something wrong. They goYou shouldn’t have done that. You’re like well, thanks. That’s pretty much what optimization is. That’s why I like it because I have a lot of data to play with and sail. You should not have pushed that button next time don’t. Then I come back a month later and I consult some more. That’s my job. So, the objective for Hydrates Spark we’re gonna say is as follows. Our goal this quarter is to obtain 10,000 opt-in email addresses. I’m using this as an objective for a few reasons. One is it’s very industry agnostic. It’s not b-to-b. It’s not b-to-c. Collecting leads is something most companies would do, therefore we can all wrap our heads around it. But with that there are three critical elements to your objective they need to be in place to make sure you’re set up for success. You need an event, in this case it’s collecting those email addresses, you need a numeric value, in this case 10,000, and a time period, one quarter. If you’re missing any of those critical elements, it’s very hard to manager out, demise your campaigns. For example, if we were missing the time period and just said our goal is to obtain 10,000 opt-in email addresses, well, by when? Should I be worried right now that we only have 4? I don’t know what I have to have 10,000 by, so, I’m just gonna keep on doing what I’m doing. But if you know you need to have 10,000 and it’s halfway through the quarter and you only have a thousand you’re gonna say whatever I’m doing is not working. So, we need to optimize in-flight, meaning, this plan right now is not going to work. So, during this time period we need to start making some changes before the end of the campaign because we’re not gonna hit our goal. You could say our run rate is below 100%, meaning we’re not we’re not progressing towards our goal efficiently. So then again, we have these KPIs, these key performance indicators. And beyond knowing how they actually influence your goal, your progress towards your goal you should know what you can do to change these KPIs. How can I get this higher or lower? So, it should be some obvious action you should take to improve them. But one thing I want to warn you about with KPIs are vanity metrics. These are numbers or metrics that look good, but don’t really mean much. For example, I just said our goal is to collect 10,000 email addresses. And if my agency came to me and said hey, Terry, great news, we got 40,000 likes on your last ad. I’d say okay, cool. What about those leads we talked about earlier? That’s the conversation you want to have. You don’t want to get blinded by vanity metrics that don’t necessarily impact your desired outcome. In this case is gonna be likes and we say we want to get leads. Unless we can find a correlation between likes and leads. That’s a vanity metric. It sounds cool. But what did that do for me? Not much. So, then we have KPI targets as well. Meaning what range do we want to be in for these KPIs? We’re gonna do some very light math right now, but let’s walk through this. Again, our goal is to obtain 10,000 opt-in email addresses. If we have an ad budget of $20,000 and the formula for a cost per lead is your ad cost to your budget divided by leads what is our target cost per lead? Meaning how much can we pay per lead with our current budget? $2.00? that sounds right. I’ll go with that, two bucks. You’re absolutely right. $20,000 budget we want to get 10,000 leads. So yes, the most we can pay per lead is $2.00. And we would look at segments. Maybe it’s men versus women or one age group versus another that are helping us get these acquisitions for two dollars or less. Because if it’s over two dollars, we’d exhaust our budget before hitting our goal. That’s why we need KPIs as well as targets. Now, for some of you you’re gonna ask, you have to ask yourself a question, does this seem realistic? Can I get these leads at $2 or less? You’re gonna want to do some research on industry benchmarks for cost per lead or cost per click, or cost per conversion as a starting point for this. But just realize, you want to understand how unique each company is. And perhaps you can’t necessarily hit that $2 cost per lead for one reason or another, but you least have to have some kind of database of record saying here’s where I got these numbers from that’s why I think it should be two dollars. Otherwise, you’re going back and forth saying what do you think should be? I don’t know, what do you think? I don’t know, what you think about it? It just goes on forever. I’ve had that conversation and someone’s having it right now, right. So, you don’t want to do that. So I have two ads up here for the Hydrate Spark. Ad A, ad B. One’s more of a lifestyle one, the one other ones a bit more direct in regards to use cases, maybe when you’re at work. But just take a moment to look at these. And eventually I’m going to ask all of you to vote which one you like better A or B? So, who prefers ad A, meaning they’d rather click on that one than add B, let’s raise your hand, okay. All right, so who prefers ad B? All right, it’s about a 60/40ish split. Okay. Got it. Cool. So, with that the ratio people that see your ad and click on it, that’s your click-through rate. You want that to be high. And your click-through rate greatly impacts how efficiently you’re using your ad budget because if you get more clicks with the same budget you get more, you’re using it more efficiently. So, here’s an example of how this would look using real data. We have ad A, we have ad B. The CPM for both these ads is $7.00 All right. What’s CPM? What does that mean? CPM is, correct, cost per 1,000 impressions. This is going to be the great equalizer across any channel, any ad, any ad group ratset because that tells you how much it costs to advertise that audience in the first place. And some audiences are more expensive than others. For example, if we were to target everyone in the US who graduated high school. That’s a very large audience. Not a lot of competition. So the CPM would be low. But if we were to target everyone in the US who was a fan of the Buffalo Bills, it’s gonna be a smaller audience, therefore the CPM could be higher. So, the smaller your audience typically the higher your CPM all things being equal. Or how competitive that audience is? Because let’s say we’re targeting everyone in the US who makes over $500,000 a year. Well, there’s a lot of competition for that audience from people who have high ticket items and they’re willing to pay a lot to reach them. Because they get a conversion. Maybe they’re selling some cool trip to Australia or something like that. So, they’ll pay a lot for click, they’ll pay a lot for conversions, because they are like if we get a conversion, we’re good. So, you want to think about that. In this example we have the same budget with both of these, so, with the CPM of $7, we would get 1.4 million impressions for both ad A and ad B. The only thing that’s going to change right now is the click-through rate. Ad A had a click-through rate of 3%, ad B had a click-through rate of 1%. And that’s gonna change everything from here. Because since we had a higher click-through rate for ad A, we got more clicks out of the same budget, more traffic coming to your site. Since we got more clicks our cost per click actually went down. Because it’s the same cost, more clicks, your cost per click goes down. If our conversion rate stays the same meaning the ratio of people that go to the website and sign up for email lists stays the same at 13 for both ads which I think is reasonable because it’s the same audience, that’s what a CPM is the same. In that case we would get much more leads from ad A versus at B. 6,000 versus 2000. And then lastly, this is the most critical part in this example, our cost for lead for ad A is $1.60 versus ad B is about $5. The only thing that changed though was the click-through rate, how many people saw your ad and clicked on it. And as you can see it had a pretty drastic impact on a performance which is why you need to know your target audience. What’s going to make them click? What’s gonna make them engage? Alright, were their pain points? Were the questions? How can you talk to them in an authentic way to get them to engage with your content? If not you see what the consequences are. So, that is why we spend so much time saying who’s our persona? What are they interested in? What are their pain points? How can we present this to them in a way that’s gonna make them take action? It helps us optimize our budget. From here, we now go into designing tactics, again, that’s how you’re gonna present your product or service in a way that triggers a need or a desire from your target audience or from… from your target audience such as prospects and customers. This is your targeting and we’re targeting one audience versus another. It’s also your call to action. How am I gonna get them to click? And I’ll give you a good example of how that can have a big impact on your performance. One of my clients owns an e-commerce shop in Ecuador. And I’m saying, ok, well, talk to me about your audience, you know, what should I know about that? He said well, one thing you should realize is in Ecuador we’re about 10 years behind the US In regards to e-commerce. We actually don’t really feel comfortable with it. There’s not a lot of trust in e-commerce where you can push a button and something shows up the next day. So that’s my main problem right now. I say ok, so knowing that about your audience let’s look at your ads and how we can somewhat alleviate that challenge. I was looking at his ads and they all said free shipping, free shipping, free shipping. Which for a lot of us here are like cool, because we don’t wanna pay for shipping anymore, right? And I said, you know what? That’s not their problem. They don’t really trust this process in general. So, instead of free shipping, you just say free returns. Because that answers a question. If I don’t like it, can I send it back? All right, and are you gonna pay for it? So, just changing their ad from free shipping to free returns click-through rate went up, conversion rate went up. That’s how they found success. So just realizing, again, going back to earlier what’s my target audience? What are the pain points? Let’s address those with the ads and you can get better outcomes. It’s also gonna be your creative. If you’re doing any kind of social right now and you don’t have videos you’re at a disadvantage. Because social is a passive platform, right. People that can go on Instagram saying oh, I hope I see an ad from somebody, right? So, if you’re seeing look look at this little picture, then read like 100 characters, then click my ad that might not work as well. But if you can do some kind of storytelling that’s visual and an intriguing then yes, you might get them to watch 15 seconds of your video and maybe even click through your website. So, you need to have video to be, to capture his attention. And with that on mobile we say you need to create thumb stopping content. Because you scroll through your mobile feed faster than you get your desktop feed, right? So with that thumb stopping content it has to be super visual even on a smaller screen in order to get people to engage. The more you know about your audience the better you can do that. Then it’s also the channel. We can’t tell people how to discover our content. And for me, I was actually humbled by one of my clients. It’s actually this art gallery here in New York and like hey Terry, you know, we want to promote this, you know, what do you think? And I was like, okay, art, why won’t we do some stuff on Instagram? It’s already, right, show some cool pictures, say that you have this installation, it is going to be awesome. And they said no that’s actually a horrible idea. I was like what? Could you tell me how you really feel? And they said, you know, our audience doesn’t like art being pushed on them, they want to discover it. All right, so sort of like hipsters, like as soon as it becomes cool like, no, I’m good. All right, so they want to discover this stuff. So what we did was instead of serving ads we wrote a lot of great content about the installation and the artists. And therefore when they searched for these things on Google content from our website would show up and that’s how they were made aware of this. So, we couldn’t push it on, we had to pull them in by having great content. That requires a lot more patience than an Instagram ad. Because now I’m saying research these installations, research these artists, write about them in a way that’s going to be interesting and something they want to share hopefully. That’s how we’re gonna get our audience. So, again, you can’t tell people how to use the Internet. So, just because you want to do a Facebook ad, maybe you can’t, all right? So, think customer first not what do I think will be fun. So, again, if you want to create awareness about your product, social media is great because you can create awareness among an audience that might take action if you give them a good reason to. In terms of CPM it’s actually cheaper on social. It’s cheaper to advertise on social than it would be for paid search where someone’s googling something and you show an ad. Because it’s more expensive to capture the intent of someone by bidding on that keyword, say it’s men’s jeans, then there’s the target men who might be in your target audience, put these jeans on Facebook where they’re passively scrolling through all this other content as well. So, I’m not saying definitely use social as opposed to paid search because a lot of other things go into that that decision-making process. But the CPM is lower on social because it’s a passive channel. All right? That said, it is really on you to create some kind of ad that’s going to make them stop scrolling and take action as well. So, are people actually looking for your product, right? So, if someone’s actually searching, in this case for a really expensive water bottle that glows we need to drink, sure, you can advertise on that if you are Hydrate Spark. And again, you know, you’re actually bidding on search queries such as water bottle or smart bottle, things of that nature. When someone types it in your ad can appear based on how much you’re bidding as well as another metric called quality score. And quality score is a function of first of all your click-through rate, how many people see that ad and click? It’s also a function of how long they spend on your landing page once they click through. If someone clicks your ad and then almost immediately leaves and goes back to the SERP, we call it, the search end of the results page, Google takes that as a negative signal that you did not give them a good experience. All right. So, let’s say all of you right now googled “pizza near NYU” and I had an ad that whammed up and said “free pizza near NYU click here.” And then you went to my landing page and it said “hahaha.” That’s a bad experience, right? You’re not gonna spend much time. You’re just gonna get annoyed and leave. So egregious example, but that’s what happens, right? So, the more time people spend on your page the less you will pay to advertise on Google, right? So, we need to realize some of these nuances of each platform because just knowing that you’re gonna say look, we need some great content. You know what? We should have a video on the landing page. It’s gonna be much more intriguing perhaps than us just writing about ourselves. Let’s have a video or a product demo, or testimonial because we know paid search is really important for us right now and we know the more time they spend on the page the cheaper it’s gonna be for us. So, let’s do that. So, that’s the value of knowing these things. And with paid search you often want to align with an expert or a freelancer first, because look what can happen if you don’t. For some reason this bottle is $1500. So, that’s obviously a typo. I hope no one would pay $1,500 for a water bottle. But yeah, this was a live ad that was served for a $1,500 water bottle. Which makes this the hydrate spark look cheap, that’s good comparing and contrasting. But I see things like this all the time and I’m like: do you realize that that’s kind of a lot for a water bottle? I want to assume that’s a typo, right? Another way you can capture search intent is through SEO, search engine optimization, right? And this is really great because you’re getting free traffic to your site or free appearances for your URL. I’m using air quotes when I say free because there’s a lot that goes into this, all right? So, there are some things on your website that can make you rank higher in SEO. Meaning having really good content. So, let’s say we’re, again, we’re selling men’s jeans. You’re talking about men’s jeans, but then you also have some like guide for how to wear jeans with boots. All right. So someone’s googling how to wear jeans with boots, then your your website can come up. So, this is content marketing aspect to it that you want to spend a lot of time on, all right? But beyond that, it’s also the number of sites that link to you. Saying, if you want to learn about jeans, check out this website. Which means at one point or another an actual human has to say, yes, I’m going to link to you. Because to Google that’s a vote that you have good content, other people are saying this is great, you should go to this site. However, SEO is often abused by shady people, just to give it a word. So, for example, years ago, let’s say you’re trying to promote the fact that you sell men’s jeans. You might have a white background on your website and there might be white font underneath that that says many jeans like a thousand times. And that would work. Ten years ago that would make you rank really high for men’s jeans because, like, well, you really like men’s jeans. It’s on there a thousand times. That would work. Not anymore. You’ll get penalized if you try that. And I bring that up because recently one of my clients came to me and they have amazing video on their landing page in the site area. It is a great video, it looks great, but you know what? We didn’t want the transcript to be on there because we thought it would take away from it. So, we have the transcript on there, but it’s in white text on a white background. What do you think? And I was like… unfortunately you have just violated one of the basic principles of SEO and you’re actually getting penalized for that. Through no fault of their own they were violating this best practice, right? That’s why you want to learn these things even if you’re not the one executing digital marketing ever, whatever agency you’re working with, or freelance, or so on and so forth. The more you know about this stuff the more of an informed conversation you can have, right. You have a question? -So just to clarify. So, I don’t want to have a video with a white background Yeah, I’ll repeat that to you. So, the question was you don’t want up a video with the white background? You can have a video that’s fine. But the challenge I had with that client is they had the transcript from the video written in white text on a white background. All right, which some people do to abuse the system. So, that’s a negative signal to Google. So, unbeknownst to them they were actually hurting their SEO ranking just by doing that. And that’s where I really like to help people saying like, okay, I know you didn’t know this, I know you weren’t trying to be shady, but as per Google that’s shady. So, we got to stop doing that stuff. I also mentioned this if you get links from another site that helps you. What some people used to do was trade a link for a link. So, hey, if you give me a link, I’ll give you a link, right, and let’s all do that. It worked really well for a while and now you get penalized. So there’s a lot of shady stuff that goes in SEO unfortunately. And then beyond that it takes a lot longer to take effect, than, let’s say, paid search. So, if I started, if you start optimizing your site in January, you might not see results until April. Just to give you a number. But whatever person is doing that you got to pay them in January, right? So, they’re not gonna say “oh, pay as you go.” So, you know, you gotta like pay like now. Which is why you’re gonna be really well informed about whatever channel that you’re advertising on because you want to have the right questions to ask. All right. So, that’s SEO. It’s great because you are bringing this organic traffic to your website. But you just want to make sure you’re following best practices and working with a very legit agency. If you’re looking to grow organically referral programs, refer-a-friend programs work great as well, all right? Because you’re now using people to amplify your reach and saying “hey if you like my product then go ahead and tell a friend.” But with that it’s really important to make sure you’re reaching satisfied customers, not someone who’s signed up yesterday. So you want to look at your across your database and say look, who’s been who’s been using my product or service for a while? Who seems happy? Reach out to them. Don’t reach out to someone who’s like infrequently using your app or they only made one or two purchases and say “by the way, you want to do my job for me?” Because they probably don’t, right? And, in fact, that could turn them off to the point where they unsubscribe from your email and you can’t market to them anymore from there. Another thing to realize is when you’re doing a referral campaign the person who’s like, who’s willing to offer their referral, to send out that referral, they’re obviously a lot more entrenched to you as a company. They like you, hopefully your product, or service. When a friend got an email from their friend. They’re like, wait what? So, you want to make sure you’re giving a really good deal to both parties. And in this case if you give someone 10% off this Hydrate Spark you get $7, right? So, the Hydrates Spark costs $60, 10% off is six dollars, now $54. I might not want it still. Like look, I don’t want to spend $54 on a water bottle either, like it’s not any better, right? So, maybe you need to have a better offer. You need to escalate that offer to something else. And the question comes. Well, how much should I be willing to give away if there is a numeric value? That’s when you go back to your KPIs and say what was my desired cost per acquisition? for a purchase? What am I willing to pay? Because in that case that’s gonna help you back into saying how much you’re willing to give away. It’s a referral bonus. Right? I will say this though. People that are referred to a company from a friend typically have a higher lifetime value. Meaning they, may say, they spend more over the course of how long they’re gonna be a customer than people that are not referred. So, now you want to bake that into an extent as well. Let’s say your desired cost per acquisition forced to sell one of these is ten dollars. If it’s a referral you’re saying okay, maybe I’m willing to give away fifteen dollars for that one because I know they’re more likely to be a lifetime customer. So, a lot goes into this process, right? If you want to grow quickly and efficiently you can do contests. Right. In this case you’re signing up to this website to win two free bottles. It’s also a really great way to get testimonials because you need social proof on your website and your app that people like it. It can’t just be using how great we are. We need someone else saying yeah, I like it, too So, if you really want to jump start getting the social proof or these testimonials contest are a great way to get your product in somebody’s hands. However, with that you want to make sure you’re giving away something that’s aligned with your product or service such as in this case a water bottle. You would not want to say, oh, if you enter this contest to win a… like an iPad from Hydrates Spark because that has nothing to do with your company necessarily. And what can happen is you have a bunch of people on your email list who want an iPad, not a hydrate spark. Therefore, you’re open rate, meaning the people that open your email, will go down and your unsubscribe rate can go up. All right? So, don’t just give away stuff just to give it away. Because often you can have the wrong people on your list and it’s not gonna do you any good. I see this happen a lot with social media campaigns. You’re saying follow us to win this, follows to win that. And then when you announce the contest is over on April 20th you lose all these people. You’re like, all right, well, another trip to Cancun, I’m out. All right, so, that’s probably not the best way to build your base. Because you don’t have overly loyal people that are engaging with your social feed in this case. This is a really cool tool that I use it’s called social blade where you can actually put in the URL for a company’s Instagram or Facebook and look at their followers go up and down. And I’ll often take a look at their social feed and say: did you have a contest and then you announced it on this date? Because I’m seeing a huge drop right now. So again, it’s called Social Blade and you can put in someones Instagram and look at their followers over a period of time. So, back to design of these tactics in this case we are going to do a Facebook ad. And within the Facebook platform, you can actually target people who exhibit specific interests as per Facebook. So, part of that’s due to the websites you browse or the apps you use. It could be things that you can engage with on Facebook as well. But you’re putting these interest categories based on those behaviors. And, believe it or not, we can target people who have an interest in water. But do me a solid, raise your hand if you have been drinking water and the last let’s say three days. Pretty much all of us, right? Yeah. So yeah, we’ve all been drinking water in the last three days. So, like this is probably not a strongest signal or strongest audience targeting for us to use. How about this. I can target people that show an interest in Aquafina or Camelback, or just any kind of hydration system. So, at least I know that they’re actively searching for content in regards to a water bottle or in this case even Camelback. I could do that. But this thing’s 60 bucks, right? So I’m thinking more about my audience. Who are these people? I think they’re somewhat techie and they’re into like the quantified self. They’re the same person that would wear a Fitbit maybe. Therefore, maybe that’s what I do. I target people that have an interest in Fitbit or IOT devices, Internet of Things. Because they’ll see that and say you know, what? Yeah. I need some more techie stuff. Like for me I buy all sorts of gadgets. My wife’s like, why do we have this? I’m like, oh, you don’t wanna know what time it is in, you know, Indiana? So, yeah, people like me who will just buy stuff because we’re techy or again we’re into that quantified self like I’m wearing a Fitbit. This could be a great audience to start from, right? But we could still test that against the Camelbak audience to see which one works better. The way we would measure that is our KPIs. Our cost per lead. Which one which one cost us more to get a lead? Was it the the IOT one or was it the Camelbak one? That’s how you to say, this is working, this is not working. So, getting even more granular, here’s one of my favorite tactics when I’m doing a Facebook or Instagram ad. I’m targeting people on mobile only when they’re on a Wi-Fi network. So, I’ll let you know, by default Facebook and Instagram or pretty much any social channels about 75 to 80% mobile. That’s how we get on social platforms. And in this case I’m saying for my ads my conversion based ads I’m only gonna target people on mobile when they’re on Wi-Fi. Why am I doing that? What’s the difference between targeting someone on their one when they’re on Wi-Fi versus a mobile network? -Your data. Yeah, your data right it’s gonna if you’re on Wi-Fi, you’re not incurring any cost for data. Yeah, so maybe I’ll get more engagement from them, right? What else would I do that? Go ahead. -They are probably somewhere where they’ll spend a long time. So, they are in a more stable environment, so, in the office. Or instead if you weren’t on wi-fi waiting for someone, you know, in a coffee shop or something. So, your attention can be disturbed quickly. Yeah, so you’re more stable, right. You’re not just like walking through Whole Foods or something like that. You’re you’re on your couch, you’re at school, you’re at work. And with that, yeah, you’re much more… You could be much more likely to actually convert. And, in fact, with my clients I’ve done this test several times and typically we’ll see conversion rates increased by about 15 to 20 percent. Meaning 15 to 20 percent more people are actually converting for whatever asking them to do when they’re on Wi-Fi versus just being on mobile. Go ahead. -How long did you see that change happen? The longest campaign I did was about a month, the shortest one was about four days. And with that, that’s gonna depend on your sales cycle, meaning how long should I wait to run a test. Because let’s pretend you’re selling like ink toner. You would have good data within a couple days because ink toner is not something you kind of browse around for a while and say oh, I wonder what’s going with a toner these days, you know. You need ink toner. But if it’s like a Hugo Boss suit there’s a longer sales cycle. So, you could not say this is conclusive until you would know the average person is probably made a purchase by now. And that might be like ten days. So, it’s gonna vary by product or service how long you can wait to say it looks like we have good data coming in. So yeah, with this Wi-Fi button again, let’s say you’re doing videos. They’re gonna load a lot better on a Wi-Fi network than mobile. And I just said video is super important, right? So, more and more reasons why you should use this option. So yeah, test it out for anyone who’s running campaigns. Then you’re executing the campaign. That’s what platform we’re going to be on to your earlier point? How long they’re running for? Are you using any kind of third-party tools such as Adobe or Marin to manage your campaigns? It’s really important. Also who’s doing this? Is it an agency? Are you doing it internally? Who’s keeping an eye on these campaigns while they’re running to make sure things don’t go crazy? What I often do with my clients is I help them set up alerts. That’ll send them an email if their KPIs are completely higher or lower than they want them to be. So, if your cost, desired cost per lead is $2, you’ll get an email if it’s like let’s say 2 dollars and 40 cents for the last two days saying look, I know you’re busy, but you got to check this out because you’re not necessarily on path to, on pace to hit your goal right now. And I do that because I realize you often have other stuff to do then look at campaigns all day. So, with that you would know so long as I don’t get an email saying, by the way, take a look at this ad or take a look at this campaign, that you’re within your desired outcome of your KPIs. So, you want to set up those alerts, so you can sleep better at night. Or just actually enjoy your weekend instead of worrying about you know how your campaigns are doing. From there you going to measure your campaigns. We talked about Google Analytics a lot because it’s free and it’s a great way to measure what’s going on on your website. But for various platforms such as LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook you’re going to have specific tracking for that platform that your developer is going to need to put on your website or your app. If it’s your website, we call that a pixel or tracking cookie. But your app, it’s gonna be an SDK, stands for a software development kit. But you would need to speak to your developer to track the customer journey throughout your website of your app to make sure that reporting on all these important actions. And with that you want to think about what are called micro conversions as well. Not just a direct conversion, meaning someone signing up for your email list. Let’s say, if someone goes to the Hydrates Spark website and they change the color from a blue bottle to a red bottle. I would consider that to be a micro conversion because they’re browsing a little bit, right, barely showing some kind of interest saying I wonder how that looks in blue versus red? And then you can say, okay, well, based on that people who make that action or, you know, they’re more likely to convert than people who just go there and don’t convert. All right, so, you want to think about that as well. A lot of my clients track video views on their website as a micro conversion. Meaning if someone watches this video within the next thirty days, are they more or less likely to convert than people who have not watched the video? If the answer is yes, that tells you first of all create more videos because it actually is increasing your conversion rate and second of all maybe have it more prominent on your website. Have it higher, or above the fold we say, so you can see it without scrolling down. So, when we’re tracking this, it’s important not just to consider direct conversions, meaning a lead in this case. You want to think about those micro conversions as well. And that’s often the missing piece from campaigns. So, these are examples of outcomes. This is how you would report it to any stakeholder, so your manager and investor, so on and so forth. We got 12, we’ve got… So, we’ve got 12,500 leads cost per lead was a $1.60, conversion rate, click-through rate, cost per click, so on and so forth. And then from here these become your benchmark KPIs. Meaning, how can I improve this next time? All right? And when you’re budgeting you’re going to budget and say well, actually, our cost per lead was a dollar sixty. So if we need 1,600 leads we actually need $100 instead. So, when you’re optimizing, again, you’re going to look at segments such as, you know, one ad versus another, or one age, one gender, one platform and say where… Where is I’m getting those goals? Where is I achieving my goal most efficiently? And then you’re going to spend as much money as possible into these well performing segments. All right. So, I’ll show you an example what that looks like, because there’s definitely no best way to do it. But if you look at all your data across various channels, in this case Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, so on and so forth, we could see what our cost per lead was across all these channels and say well, it looks like Instagram was our best option. Because there’s only a dollar cost per lead. And then next time you would spend as much money as possible in Instagram with whatever audience that was until you hit diminishing returns. The diminishing returns are when your cost per lead starts to go up. Because by design the algorithms for these platforms reach people who are more likely to take action on your ad. So, you might find that after a while you’ve exhausted these really really active people who are likely to take action and you’re reaching other people that are more passive and might not want to, or you’ll notice that your frequency has increased. What’s frequency? What’s that mean for your ads? Go ahead. -How often that your ads will show up in their windows. Exactly. So, frequency is how often the same person, how many times the same person has seen the same add more or less. If you see that you have a thousand people in your target audience to give a number and you’ve reached 400 people, but your ad frequency is three, that means that… That means the algorithm saying look, I don’t think the other 600 people want to see your ad, so, we’re just not going to. So now we’re showing it to repeat people. That’s another way you would know that you exhausted your audience and need to choose the next best option on here. All right? So that’s why I say these KPIs, these are the great equalizer to let us know what’s working better. And you would look at your data over time and say okay, are these stable or am I seeing that I’m hitting a point of diminishing returns, and you would pivot strategies. And with that one thing that I like a lot about digital marketing in general is something is always changing. There’s always some change in the algorithm or the platform, or sometimes just the way like you use your phone. That’s gonna have an impact on how well your campaigns are performing, so, you can never say, you know what? We’re good, let’s just ride this out for a couple years. We’re all… We got our campaigns optimized. Let’s go home early, right? It’s not going to happen. Because there’s always some kind of algorithm change. And there was a big one recently. It was a lot of stuff going on with Facebook. But there’s a big one recently with Facebook where they stopped… They started reducing their reach that brands would get in the feed for their ads. Meaning you’ll see more posts from your friends and family as opposed to brands. So, the organic reach for brands was decreased. And with that some companies are already going out of business as a result of that, because they were relying on getting this free organic reach to send people to the website where they are monetizing that traffic. And with the algorithm changing, they’re not getting that same website traffic. So, they’re like, look, our business model, the way it works, this is not going to, we can’t succeed and we’re done. All right? And that’s why I always say, you know, you don’t want your your business to be just so so dependent on an algorithm that can change tomorrow. So, you want to capture owned channels such as your list or a chatbot, or an app, something you have control over, not an algorithm on Twitter which could change tomorrow based on one thing or another. it’s very dangerous to put all those eggs in that basket, which is this algorithm in this case, all right? And lastly another thing. I see a lot of marketers that they’re missing is content marketing. All right. How do I provide value to you first to get you to come to my website or my app and do something? And content marketing is an extremely unselfish form of marketing because you’re putting the customer or the prospect first. Which is really hard to do when you’re like look, I got to pay these bills, too. The lights are gonna go off if I don’t bring money in. So, when you talk about content marketing it should be intellectually wed to your to your product or service, but it should be divorced from any kind of direct response. And It’s hard to find that balance sometimes because some brands think content marketing is, instead of just saying “click here buy the shirt,” it’s like someone wearing a shirt on the beach. And like, well, no, That’s still, that’s still you trying to advertise your shirt. Content marketing is you providing valuable and relevant information to your target audience. And again, that goes right back to that honeycomb that we talked about before. All right, what is gonna be valuable and relevant? I’ll give you a few examples. All right. So, say we’re Nike. We could have some vlog about tips for how to exercise when it’s hot outside. Make sure you stay hydrated, wear light layers, so on and so forth, right? That’s a blog that someone’s gonna look for they’re gonna Google like, alright, it’s really hot, but I still got to run. Nike has this great content the website shows up that’s content marketing or that’s an ad that they serve to people that they know were interested in working out. Get them to the website and then retarget them with additional ads saying, by the way, that jacket they were mentioned in that ad or that shirt we mentioned it’s now 20% off. Click here, buy now. That’s called a warm audience. Alright, because they’ve actually been to your website, they know who you are, they’ve engaged. Warm audiences are much more active and engaging than cold audiences. So, instead of the same buy this jacket, it’s hot outside, they say, alright, let me provide value to you first. Or an airline could just have a blog on best ways to pack for a trip which I know I could use because I always overpack for some reason, like. So again, like your waste over to pack so you have these essentials, but you don’t bring too much stuff. Here’s when it’s going even a bit further. A marketing tech company like Adobe, right? Adobe’s expensive, it’s gonna cost. If you want to get like their Analects platform it might be like a hundred thousand dollars. And often the decision maker who says yes or no, is not the person is gonna be using it. And beyond that sometimes a but don’t even know how to use it. Like, I don’t know what half these terms mean. So, the decision maker for buying products, but they’re also the decision maker for hiring people. So, if you go to interview with this person, you guys throw a bunch of terms like KPIs and algorithms, okay, all right, cool. Sounds good, I don’t know. So, I could put together a blog on how to interview a digital marketer and say these are the questions to ask. How do you plan a campaign? You know, how do you come with KPI targets? How do you budget on a channel basis? If I just had that blog laid out for that person, that decision-maker, I’m doing them a favor. Because like look, I got to hire somebody next week and I have no clue what to ask them. I’m like, you know, like she sounded like she knew a lot of stuff, or he had a nice tie. I don’t know, they got hired, right? Or for your fast-food restaurant a bunch of mean tweets, right. Here’s apparently that works for Wendy’s. It all depends on your audience though. Like who you’re serving ads to or who you’re trying to come to your website. Hugo Boss had a really nice one. It was actually how to negotiate for a higher salary. Hugo Boss suits are kind of expensive, right? So, anyone who can afford that, you might think, they’re in a position to actually negotiate for a higher salary. But they also did that in conjunction with Forbes because why would I take, you know, like a career information from Hugo Boss? And like, alright, you guys make good clothes. So, co-branding that with Forbes is a great way to bring more authenticity to it and have another partner that’s gonna help amplify their content, right? So, partnering with influencers that’s why you see a lot of times because they bring that authenticity to the approach that you’re presenting to your target audience. So, in the case of Hydrate Spark they do have some great blogs on their website. For example, “10 reasons why water is the ultimate health drink.” Pretty aspirational there. And you want to have a series of these blogs that are, again, not just talking about the Hydrate Spark all day. It’s providing value to your target audience in one way or another. But like I said before, you know, video is essential, too, because, you know, you have this passive audience and you want to make sure they’re engaging with you. Having a video on your landing page has been shown to increase conversion rate by up to 80%. That was a study done by HubSpot, I believe. And by conversion rate I mean lead generation, not necessarily selling stuff, but lead generation. So again, you want to explain why someone actually wants to engage with your product or service. Going even deeper into lead generation. Platforms such as Facebook have what are called lead ads. And with that I can contact that same person who read my blog from Nike and say hey, by the way, you know, we have great content that we produce every week. If you hit that button and say subscribe, we’re gonna send it to you every week directly to your inbox. In this case it would scrape your name and your email address directly off of your Facebook profile. You hit submit and that advertiser has your information. The goal with this is to reduce the friction involved in acquiring a lead. Because if I ask you to go to my website it might load to slow or you might not necessarily like the content you’re seeing there. With this I can immediately capture your interest. You’re never leaving the Facebook platform and I can capture that contact information. LinkedIn has the same ad unit. Some of you might have seen it before. So, if you’re doing b2b, that would be a good idea, alright, or something to try. So, LinkedIn same thing, you hit submit it’s gonna scrape your email address directly off your LinkedIn profile. That advertiser now has access to it, they can download it by a CSB. It also syncs with several CRM systems such as MailChimp. S,o you can easily put that data in there. So your mobile speed matters because people in social they don’t necessarily want to click off of social. And if they do you need to give them a good experience. In fact, back in August of last year Facebook and Instagram started decreasing their reach that slowly loading mobile websites would get in the newsfeed. So, you’re saying hey, how come I can’t reach my goal of impressions? I would say it’s because your website loads too slow. What’s it have anything to do with? I’m still paying for these ads. Yeah, but they won’t even have a good experience. So therefore you can’t pay your way out of this. You need to actually fix your website. Now you’re going back to your developer again and saying hey, by the way, that big image we have on there, can we compress that? It’s huge. I mean, it looks good, but so does money. So we gotta we gotta fix this stuff. All right, so it’s not all front-end stuff where you’re creating awesome ads and, you know, getting clicks and everything. It’s like what happens when they get there as well it’s really important. And the more you can understand these things and effectively communicate with people on your team such as the designer who made that big image. Just telling that person like look, I know, I think it’s great, too, but we got to compress it because it’s actually hurting our quality score. What’s quality score? It’s a metric that helps us pay less for paid ads, right? So you want to educate people and say here’s why I’m asking you to do this stuff. I’m not just rying to bug you, but there’s a desired outcome I’m aiming towards. And if we all work together on this we can do that. So, what I do with my clients is often have them do show and tells where they’ll bring in everyone from various departments and say look, just real quick, you know, just talk about your job. You know, some things you’re working on and how people can support you, all right? Because if everybody gets oh, that’s why I keep on getting emails about, you know, making this image smaller. Like, alright, cool, I can do that. I didn’t know because I have all this other stuff in my plate as well. So, in conclusion I’ll give you some takeaways. You want to start with a goal, which I know by now sounds kind of redundant. But some people don’t because it is really fun just to make an ad real quick where you like, what you gonna do? I don’t know, we’ll find out. You want to have a goal in mind and it’s aligned with your target audience and what they care about, right. Because people don’t care how much you know until they know how much you care. All right. That’s why we need is authenticity. We can’t just say “oh, yeah, click here, buy now. We’re the experts.” We have to say like look, we get it’s hot outside and you still want to work out. Check out this blog, right? We’re gonna give you some tips for how you can do this. You know, go out there early in the morning, stay hydrated, so on and so forth. Then determine what channels they want to be reached on, not what channels you want to use. And yes, you know what? Sometimes it’s gonna require more work
if you have to defrayed some great content for
that, but that’s the way it goes. An exchange value for their audience’s time, right. Because time’s the one thing that we can’t get any more of. An from there measure, test, and optimize. You’re never done, right? You’re always repeating. Because you always want to improve on what you’ve done before and react to any changes that happened on various platforms. So, what’s next? I would advise you to go to my website and check out some of the blog’s I have available on there. There’s one specifically for campaign optimization. If you go there there’s some dummy data that you can play around with to start practicing optimizing campaigns. So, you can download that excel sheet and check that out. But it will get you used to the whole process before you’re using your own data. If there is one blog I would advise you to check out, there’s several which I’d love to share with you, but if there is one I would say Marketing Land. And the reason why I’m saying that is because they curate information from various other platforms and serve it in a more concise version. But then beyond that what we can do is say alright, well, I only want to opt-in to certain kind of content such as social or mobile, or analytics and that’s what’s coming to your inbox. Because one other challenge I see with teams is they subscribe to all these lists and they get so many emails a day they don’t read any of them. All right, just like, I’m done. So, you want to curate your inbox on with what blogs you’re subscribing to. This one I like a lot. Another thing is if you are working on a team I often encourage my clients to just elect one person each week to read through these blogs and say look, here’s something I found that’s gonna impact us in this client. Here’s why it’s important. So, you’re going to take turns just summarizing this content because even if I say look, only read one blog. You’re still not going to. I get it. You get busy. But if one person each week is responsible for reading this stuff and then spreading a very concise email saying here’s what happened with Instagram, here’s what happened with Twitter, here’s that one with Google, here’s how it impacts us. And here’s what we should do next. That accountability is going to make it a lot better and that concise statement is going to make it a lot more digestible. So, with that you can open it up to questions. Hey. -So, it was awesome. Cool, thanks. -And… But I can see, you know, this is when you have something that is all set up. -What if it’s something completely new and you don’t know, you know, what your audience is just yet? How would you go from there? Yeah, I mean, with that when you have a product or service you typically have some kind of end user in mind. But you’d want to do some surveys, even do some panels say, like look, I have this new product, what do you think about it? You know, who would be interested? What other attributes would you like to see? And then from there start focusing more on a persona, which is easy to change once you hit critical mass in your data. Right, those first 1,000 customers are first 1,000 people that take some kind of action. That’s really what’s going to help you get more defined in regards to who your target audience is. And then look at conversion data seeing who’s converting, who’s not. But then lastly just realizing you might have more than one persona. All right. Let’s say you’re a bank. Some people are there for home loans, some are there for auto loans, some are there for like education for their kids. You might find that you have these segments in your persona that you can’t speak to the same way. So, now you’re segmenting your communication and the way you’re presenting your business value in order to be more authentic with them. So, just to put some numbers behind it. Let’s say, like, during the whole data gathering process you have a thousand dollar budget. Maybe you spend two hundred dollars just kind of putting some ads out there, seeing who’s responding. And then from there start tweaking based on the conversions that you’re seeing come in from there. And it could be a high level conversion. It can be someone who signs up your email list, right? Don’t necessarily wait for, you know, an actual purchase or something like that. Yeah, starting outs always rock because like, I have no data. Have ambition, no data. Yeah. Hey. -Hi. Thank you so much. This is extremely insightful. So, I have two questions. One is what are your thoughts on affiliate or influencer marketing? Let me answer the first one first because I can’t do two questions. -Yes. I’m already answering the first one while the second is coming. What my thoughts are on affiliate and influencer marketing. So those are similar but not necessarily directly the same thing. So, an affiliate marketer is when someone is paid to advertise or promote your product and they get paid a cut of any kind of conversions that come through. I think it is a great way to grow your audience who going to be exposed to the opportunity to convert. It’s also a great way to control your cost for acquisition because you can tell them I’m only paying you $10 per conversion, alright? With that, there are some controls you want to put in place in regards to how they are going to communicate your message. And you need to make sure that you have really good attribution for any kind of conversions they’re bringing in. So, what I’ve done before with my clients is I said, okay cool, you’re doing affiliate marketers. Let’s give them their own unique URL that they’re gonna use to promote. And therefore when it comes into Google Analytics I would know this came from that influencer or that, sorry, that affiliate. What I’ve also done is this. I’ve taken a look at that traffic and segmented it between new users and returning users. Because if an affiliate is sending me a bunch of returning users, they’re not growing my audience any, right? These are people that already herded me in the first place. I mean, they’ve been to my website during that time period. So, you’re not helping me grow. if you’re just sending me the people that have already heard of me before. So, you do want to get pretty granular and how you measure that and how you understand their impact. So, as long as you, you know, have that set in place, I think it’s a great idea. Influencers are totally different. It’s funny. I was a stopping by one of my clients before I came here. He is a pretty big influencer. And with that it’s often challenging to get attribution because you’re often paying them for impressions. Alright, you’re saying talk about my product or service and on Instagram and I’m gonna pay you for every X thousand impressions. But then the question is what did I get for it? Alright, so if they’re not actively using like
a promo code or a link to click through it
can be hard. What I often do is this. I’ll do a correlation between how many impressions that post got and how many, let’s say like, organic business you got to your website that day. Or are people using your brain of term to go directly there. And say, are we seeing a correlation between these 2.1 million impressions you got over these three days and traffic coming to your website that we can say look it seems like it’s strongly correlated with those impressions you’ve got on Instagram. So, you want to get much more granular into how you’re measuring that otherwise. I could say I’m an influencer and I got a million impressions, but if nobody did anything after that, it doesn’t matter, right? It’s pretty.. it’s a merkin territory sometimes. Yeah.
-Sorry, just one more. -So, it’s more of an example-like. Supposing I’m a brand and I have -advertised my campaign supposing on Instagram, in print media, on TV, you know, multiple places. -And a consumer from Instagram ad he goes and signs up or whatever. -He sees my website and I can see that, you know, from Instagram they’ve accessed, but what if the ultimate purchase was from, -you know, from the TV ad or from the print ad?
Yeah. -Even though I can measure my digital like, you know, -this was like how many signups I got if he visit visited my website. But the ultimate conversion was from somewhere else. -So is there a way of tracking that actually the conversion was from where? Yes, so, the question is someone saw an Instagram, had clicked and converted, but what if they also saw TV ad or a billboard ad. How do we get attribution for that? That can be challenging. And I’m sure on the subway you’ve seen like these ads before that said hey, use code subway1234 to redeem. That’s one way to do it Another is what’s called a match market lift test. And by that I mean you would do both Instagram ads as well as, let’s say, subway ads, and buffalo. But only do your Instagram ads and Syracuse and see if there’s an incremental lift between areas that had both subway and Instagram ads. Or same thing with TV, but that’s awesome. Again, it’s a bit trickier, too, but that’s what you would want to do that because that’s that’s the Holy Grail. Like offline/the online attribution, being able to understand that it’s a challenge. But that’s one way you can do it. Yeah, hey. -Thank you for the presentation.
Yeah. -What is your advice for someone who wants to get to be like digital marketer? Is there like a certification? -What the person should do? Yeah, so the question is for someone who wants to become a digital marketer, what suits in some experience… Sorry, next steps be. I would say first of all decide if there’s something some specific channels you care more about than others, right? Because maybe you like email. I think that’s awesome and I think it’s a lot of fun. But SEO after that guys talk eew, seems kind of hard. So, decide if you want to specialize. Because you often get rewarded a bit more for specializing in some cases unless you’re like running a department. But if you do want to get certified just in digital marketing in general there’s there’s several ways to do that. HubSpot actually has an inbound marketing certification which is free. So that’s affordable for everybody. It’s also an issue recognized. You can also consider taking a class here at NYU, right? There’s a digital marketing certification class here that’s offered. I actually taught one of the classes weeks ago. You can do that as well. I would just say once you get it, what are you gonna do with it, too? So, have a plan. Like you don’t have to say I’m a digital marketer and you know, that’s who I am. I would think what are you really passionate about? Because with digital marketing it changes all the time. And if you’re not passionate and gritty you’re gonna get frustrated. So for me, I like googling things and researching, that’s how I am naturally. But, you know, if you’re not that into the channel, you’re gonna say, alright, there’s no change. I got to do this. It shouldn’t feel like work. It should be like well, I’m really curious and passionate to see how I can now apply this to my business as opposed to saying oh, great, another algorithm change. So, you know, think if you want to specialize and think what are gonna do afterwards I’d say. -I’m just wondering, do you got more insights from actual… actual experience? while you are actually doing certain companies with you clients or from reading, or other sources like the blog that you listed earlier? Yeah, so, it’s a combination of both. The question was do you get more experience from actually running campaigns or do you get more, do you learn more from reading blogs? It’s a combination of both. I would not necessarily align myself with anyone who’s saying they’re an expert but they’ve never done this thing or they haven’t done it recently. You do want to get your hands dirty and like go through those frustrations we were talking about earlier. Saying, you know, how do I optimize this ad? Because from that you learn a lot. But if you’re, if you’re so busy with your head down maintaining these campaigns that you don’t have time to read a blog you miss out on all these updates. And that’s the role I play with my clients because I get it. I used to be an account manager when I was at Adobe. I was there for three years managing campaigns for Adobe, Amazon, like all these huge companies. I didn’t have time to breathe sometimes to come up and say oh, okay, I’m gonna read this blog. So for me, I can empathize with any client who’s going through that and say look, I’m just gonna tell you the stuff you need to know that’s really important, right? There’s ten things going on this week. Here the three critical ones you need to know. If it rains tomorrow take a look the other seven. So, that that’s my approach focusing on impact as opposed to just throwing a bunch of stuff at people because I’ve been there, I get it. You know, you you don’t want to just make some recommendations that are going to have people just like digging around and like wasting time more or less. Both is the answer. But to get that initial experience you have to be willing sometimes to like volunteer at nonprofit or do some campaigns for a friend of the family. You can’t show up to an agency and say hey, I’ve never done it before, but I read a book about it and I’m passionate, right? So, you have to like make sure that you are willing to do some ground work and maybe not get paid for it. -Do you have another questions? Any other questions? -There is a digital marketing expert in the house. I charge a lot. So, yeah, I’m joking. Does anyone have another question who already asked one is feeling like I don’t ask two? See some moving over here. -I was going to say, just breaking into new things as like begin with, so that’s complicated just in terms of like -how you position things. Oh, here’s a great one. -So, I’m involved with one category -which is totally brand new that our company is going to be looking at. And people were like, well, -you know, the person involved with it should be authentic and share their story. -How… What’s the right balance, because this is something we’re thinking about and talking about, between -sharing something authentic and sharing too much, too much information? Do you know what I mean? Yeah.
-Borders in this like that’s too much. Yeah, I mean, it’s almost like let’s say you’re flying somewhere. Like you’re gonna have a conversation with the person next you want to get to know. They start getting personal. Wow, wow, wow, like. Okay, I’m not going to go that deep. Yeah, I mean, I think internally you should have an idea of saying if you’re going too far or not. That’s why it’s good to have, you want to have diversity and you wanna have several people weighing in and saying look, I think this is like maybe not the way we want to present our company, especially if it’s a very sensitive topic, right? Because even with that Hydrate Spark we could say oh, the reason why I’m drinking water is because this happened me when I was younger. It’s like, okay, maybe we don’t need to know that. All right, you know, so maybe just like go more higher level. But that’s why it’s good to have that decision made by a committee of people that come from diverse backgrounds. And someone might say like look, I think, you know, this might be a trigger for some people. Just based on my experiences and maybe we should just not do that. -On the surveying what would you recommend? That’s something our company is looking at, too. I have a meeting with someone tomorrow about that. -You know, we were looking at the idea of surveys and how we might approach that. Because we have a couple of diverse things. -So, this could apply to anyone. With a couple of diverse things in your lineup -how do you decide which to focus on? -We’re still we struggle with that because there are different kinds of products in it. -So, which ones do we focus on they would appeal to different users. Yes, I mean there’s a few ways to do that for a relatively low cost. The question is surveys, how can we conduct them? There’s Google surveys. Those are like two bucks each, two bucks per response. Where they would pull certain people, ask them a question, you know, which product would you rather buy? Survey Monkey does the same thing. If you want to have them run these surveys for you, you can do that. You can even do it, I’ve seen a lot of companies do this with Instagram stories. I was talking to Walmart recently and I showed him an example from Fresh Direct how they were trying to determine like what new products to release. Saying, which would you rather buy this one or that one? And with Instagram stories you can vote on one versus another, so you can use Instagram stories for product development if you wanted to. So, you’re finding a creative way to get this information because with any kind of survey there’s survey bias. Because the question is, well, who has this much time to fill these surveys, right? Like now you’ve a bunch of bored people in your data set, right? So, any way you can reduce the survey bias by having it become maybe a more engaging or authentic approach as opposed to, you know, someone who’s just kind of filling out a survey to fill out a survey, you know, get better results. -So, we have three or four like, and maybe some folks here have the same thing where it’s a couple of different categories or different users would -be attracted to one category versus another. Should you just pick one of those categories and just say, okay, -let me go for this kind of user or, you know, this audience. Yeah, I mean without knowing too much specific about what you’re talking about I would say you want to initially follow your gut. Because when you made a product or service I’m guessing you’re not saying well, see what happens, right. So, you had someone in mind when you created it. You would want to then test that assumption through, you know, for your ads and then see who’s responding. Because maybe you thought women would love this. We’re seeing men have a higher click-through rate and say okay, well, I was wrong. And and then you kind of shift your approach from there once you get some data coming in. Yeah. That’s the fun part. I mean, but here’s the thing. So long as you’re tracking everything you can say that worked, let’s keep it up, that didn’t work, let’s not do it. And then you start getting closer to having some kind of more defined audience that you’re targeting and that is actually interacted with your stuff. So, that’d be my approach. -I have a question.
Go for it. Digital marketing field is constantly evolving, you’ve talked a lot today about, you know,
-Yeah. -algorithms changing on Facebook, all sorts of different things, and how one of the most important things about being a good digital marketer is to -stay really up-to-date about all the updates that are happening. -I’m curious to know just a few examples of some obvious things that are always being updated that we’d probably know and then -maybe some less obvious things. They don’t have to be on Facebook. They can really be on any of these tools. I’m just curious. Yeah, so, for obvious things I will go with Facebook and Instagram for a second because it’s pretty poignant. Engagement bate is something that people do where they’ll say tag a friend to do this or comment to win this, or like to do that. That used to be a good way to get a lot of engagement which will get you more reach. It would make you pay less if you were advertising. Facebook is now determined that to be all to say corny to give it a word. Therefore, you’ll get penalized if you do that. So, I’m looking at RFPs from companies are saying oh, yeah, we want to have this share to win contest. And like, you can’t do that. And they are like, why not? Like I read his blog last week and they’re like, oh, great. So that’s… I like helping people with that because they have like all this money they’re about to do for this campaign, and I’m like, you can’t do that anymore. So, that would be one that’s, you know, kind of obvious but or not obvious with something that’s visual. I think SEO is where you see the most like things you wouldn’t even think about that have, can have an impact. I’ll give you an example of that. If you have a pop-up on your website that captures email addresses saying thanks for visiting, you know, capture. You know, sign up for my email list. That actually as of January of last year has a negative impact on your SEO. Because it’s deemed as being annoying by Google. I’m sure you all feel the same way, right? I’m not saying everybody get rid of your pop-ups. I’m saying if SEO is a big part of your strategy, consider it because you’re by design hurting your SEO. Another thing with SEO is if you have a secure site, HTTPS, you will rank higher than an HTTP, a non secure site. Even if you’re not doing e-commerce. You could be a blog about cats, but if you’re a secure blog about cats you get an advantage in regards to SEO. So, these are little things you would not think about that do have an impact. And that’s why, again, read those blogs, partner with, you know, some kind of freelancer or consultant, or whatever, or internally just encourage everyone to stay up-to-date with these things because they come out of nowhere and all of a sudden, you know, you’re getting some impact that, you know, could have been avoided. Yeah, so you’re never bored. -Does anyone have a question? No? Okay. -Well, with that I just want to say thank you again, Terry. -It’s always such a pleasure to have you here at NYU -And we’re so so grateful for your time and expertise and we greatly appreciate it. Thank you. I had a great time. Thanks everybody. [Applause]

2 thoughts on “NYU Startup School: Digital Marketing Essentials

  1. I've referred to this video several times, there is lots of useful and practical information when you are planning a social media campaign. Thank you for the post

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